The task of evaluating the processes of man’s subconscious is the province of
psychology. Psychology does not regard its subject morally, but
medically—i.e., from the aspect of health or malfunction (with cognitive
competence as the proper standard of health).
As a science, psychology is barely making its first steps. It is still in the
anteroom of science, in the stage of observing and gathering material from
which a future science will come. This stage may be compared to the
pre-Socratic period in philosophy; psychology has not yet found a Plato, let
alone an Aristotle, to organize its material, systematize its problems and
define its fundamental principles.
In psychology, one school holds that man, by nature, is a helpless,
guilt-ridden, instinct-driven automaton—while another school objects that this
is not true, because there is no scientific evidence to prove that man is
Psychology departments have a sprinkling of Freudians, but are dominated by
Behaviorism, whose leader is B. F. Skinner. (Here the controversy is between
the claim that man is moved by innate ideas, and the claim that he has no ideas