A fallacy which may be termed “the fallacy of the frozen abstraction” . . .
consists of substituting some one particular concrete for the wider abstract
class to which it belongs—[e.g.,] substituting a specific
ethics (altruism) for the wider abstraction of “ethics.” Thus, a man may reject
the theory of altruism and assert that he has accepted a rational code—but,
failing to integrate his ideas, he continues unthinkingly to approach ethical
questions in terms established by altruism.