“True” and “false” are assessments within the field of human cognition: they
designate a relationship [of] correspondence or contradiction between an idea
and reality. . . . The false is established as false by reference to a body of
evidence and within a context, and is pronounced false because it contradicts
All falsehoods are self-contradictions.
When making a statement about an existent, one has, ultimately, only two
alternatives: “X (which means X, the existent, including all its
characteristics) is what it is”—or: “X is not what it is.” The choice
between truth and falsehood is the choice between “tautology” (in the sense
explained) and self-contradiction.