Only in regard to the man-made is it valid to claim: “It happens to be, but it
could have been otherwise.” Even here, the term “contingent” is highly
misleading. Historically, that term has been used to designate a metaphysical
category of much wider scope than the realm of human action; and it has always
been associated with a metaphysics which, in one form or another, denies the
facts of Identity and Causality. The “necessary-contingent” terminology serves
only to introduce confusion, and should be abandoned. What is required in this
context is the distinction between the “metaphysical” and the “man-made.” . . .
Truths about metaphysical and about man-made facts are learned and validated by
the same process: by observation; and, qua truths, both are equally
necessary. Some facts are not necessary, but all truths are.